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Electronic test equipment, commonly called testgear, is equipment that is used to create stimulating signals and capture the responses from electronic devices under test. These devices are knowns as DUTS, Devices Under Test. Given this controls it is possible to prove the proper operation of a device through these tests, and deem them as being needed of repair or not.

Testing electronic Systems - DUTS

Testing electronic Systems - DUTSElectronic test equipment, commonly called testgear, is equipment that is used to create stimulating signals and capture the responses from electronic devices under test. These devices are knowns as DUTS, Devices Under Test. Given this controls it is possible to prove the proper operation of a device through these tests, and deem them as being needed of repair or not.Electronic test equipment is an essential element to any major electronics system. Ranging from a simple light bulb to expense and even automated tasks,electronic test equipment covers a very large range. In general it can be said that when developing electronic systems that more advanced equipment is needed opposed to when doing routine production testing on existing systems in the field. This rule is not always however true, because every system is different.Some examples of test equipment are: Ammeter, Voltmeter (Measures voltage), Multimeter (Measures all of the above), Oscilloscope (Measures all of the above as they change over time), Frequency counter (Measures frequency).In the past, it used to be that tests would have to be initiated by some type of man given command, through a controller or other. With the level of technology present today, the majority of testing is done automatically through the use of computers, either continuously or at given increments. This automation of testing greatly led to an increase in production and in reliability of electronic systems as they almost have the ability to monitor themselves and know when something is going wrong.

Call Canada Through a Cool Connection at Hot Rates

Call Canada Through a Cool Connection at Hot Rates

Planning to go to Canada to finally go for an awesome and long-awaited vacation in Alberta with your granny? Well what are you waiting for? Book it!Extremes of climate heat and cold symbolize Canada, a country distinguished by its multi-racial citizens. Citizens include people of: European, Indian, Arabic, American, Italian, Hispanic and Caribbean descent. The aboriginal inhabitants of Canada also add to the distinct flavor of the country. Situated in the northern side of the North American continent, Canada captivates you with its pristine, scenic beauty. From snow-capped mountains to serene lakes and rivers and wooded forests, Canada beckons you with its natural environment.Though you are not at any rate short of funds, No so fast!, your mind tells you. Too bad you have never placed an international call to Canada. Now you just have to forego the masterplan til somebody offers you to make that call for you. NOT! It just so happened that you are not led to this article just for any reason. Fortunately, information regarding how to make an international call to Canada abound and they were just so packed here for your convenience. And guess what? You are about to learn to save some precious dough too. So, just read on.Easy tips to save on your international calls.It is recommended to not make an operator assist you with your calls. This would cost you dollars when you can just spend some few cents in making that phone call. Another piece of advice is to avail of flexible prepaid long distance calling plans offered by various telecommunications sources.Know your calling patterns. According to your habits in making international calls, whether you are a night or day caller or non-business days caller or not, informing the company that you are eyeing on to give your business will be of great help.The real deal in placing international call to Canada:Take note that the country code for Canada is 1. This number is also known as the routing number, prefix, and country code.Any mistake on this number could lead you to other countries. Surely you would not want to be greeted by somebody speaking Hungarian or Japanese. That would be a waste of money too. If you do not want to suffer these consequences, better be really on your toes when dialing all the numbers you are supposed to dial.Here is a list of the area codes in Canada:Alberta 403British Columbia 250British Columbia (Lower Mainland) 604Manitoba 204New Brunswick 506Newfoundland 709Nova Scotia 902Ontario (London) 519Ontario (North Bay) 705Ontario (Ottawa) 613Ontario (Thunder Bay) 807Ontario (Toronto Metro) 416Ontario (Toronto Vicinity) 905Prince Edward Island 902Quebec (Montreal) 514Quebec (Quebec City) 418Quebec (Sherbrooke) 819Saskatchewan 306Simple Steps to Call Canada:Dial the international access code 011 (no need to dial this code if you are calling from USA).Dial Canadas country code 1.Dial the city code of the place you want to connect with. (e.g.: Alberta city code is 403 and Manitoba city code is 204.)Dial the remaining digits.Avoid calling direct unless you are well-off enough to not mind spending a hefty amount on making that simple and effortless international call. A prepaid phone service is a lot more practical. Also, if you despise dialing too many numbers, most prepaid call services do not require you to dial any pin. Just shop around for the best rates.Despite the fact that English and French are the official languages of Canada, understanding the local parlance can be quite daunting. For instance, a mickey is not a cartoon character, but a small bottle of booze; and the Royal Mountain police are referred to as the Mounties.Aside from this effort in learning the instructions in placing a call to Canada while saving money, you might want to go that extra mile to make your international calling experience a bit more rewarding than the usual. Go greet the person youre calling with a homely "Bonjour" since French is also one of the major languages used in Canada. It wont just surprise your calls recipient. It might also just make his or her day.

The Calling Card Alternative

The Calling Card Alternative

For a few years now, the calling cards business is booming. Everywhere you go, everywhere you search you might find one: in WallMarts, grocery stores, newspaper stands, vending machines in coffee shops. But the place you can find the most of these long distance alternatives is the internet. A quick search on Google, Yahoo or other search engines will reveal thousands of websites that sell "calling cards" . So, its an easy pick, one might say. Well not quite. According to the FCC, almost 70% of the calling card businesses are fraudulent. Meaning mostly that they get your money but you dont get the calling card. That means that you have to be very careful when choosing a website to buy from. On top of that, calling cards vary in number and features, so you have to choose the one appropriate to your needs. Their low rates however, come with a price at times. Companies selling calling cards use VoIP technology and other third party carriers to complete their calls. While not as expensive as a satellite connection (hence the "low rates" ), this technology is at the beginning, so problems may occur from time to time. This is why calling cards are not usually recommended for emergency calls. For calls within the United States however, calls made with calling cards (also known as phone cards) have a good quality and connection rate, given that you have found a good supplier.So here are the steps you need to take to get the best out of your calling card purchase:-Find a reliable website (this means no weird pop-ups, no advertisement of Viagra on the website you get my point).-Take a look at the available calling cards and rates.-Check out any details of calling cards: usually, next to or underneath the picture of the calling card there is a link that will take you to a Details page. Look for maintenance fees, rounding, any other surcharges, expiration dates. -If you intend to make a lot of long calls over a short period of time, choose a card with a maintenance fee. This means that a certain amount will be deducted from your balance each week/month until you use up the card. But if you plan to make so many calls, youll probably use the card up by the time the maintenance fee is deducted. Calling cards with maintenance fees also tend to have lower rates.-If you use the card just once in a while, choose a card with no maintenance fee. These cards usually have higher rates, but you dont have to worry about your balance going down if you do not use the card.-Look for a Customer Service number. Reliable companies have Customer Service, in case their customers have questions or problems.After this, get the card you this is best for your needs and wait for it to arrive in the email. Unless otherwise specified, you should be able to use it immediately. Good luck!

What is a Multilayer PCB?

What is a Multilayer PCB?

A Multilayer PCBs consist of multiple layers of electronic components placed over each other.Through-hole construction was the technology that was used to deal with planting the electrical components through the holes on the Printed Board Curcuit and then soldering them together. When this technology was found wanting in complex cases, Point-to-Point construction technology evolved. This proved to be better than its predecessor, but in no way is it comparable to a multilayer PCB. The development of multilayer PCB has allowed electronic companies to drastically cut down on the cost and size of their products.The functionality of a multilayer Printed Board Circuit depends on the internal connections between the various components that make up the entire device. Until and unless these components work in tandem, the device is non-functional. In the case of most technology, the urge to improve product performance makes the products bulky, whereas the flexible design of the multilayer PCBs has entirely replaced the rigid single-layered PCB design. The high-class wiring and the flexible parts have improved the performance of many products, especially automated and complex devices such as computers and cellular phones. Technology today has come a long way, culminating in the manufacture of multilayer PCBs that can contain as many as twenty-four layers, depending on usage and the complexity of the product itself. Multilayered PCBs have also facilitated the ease of manufacturing, since most of them are pre-mounted and prefabricated. Although manufacturing these prefabricated multilayered PCBs is a complex process, the final stage has now become a matter of assembly rather than manufacturing.Any discussion of this technology would be incomplete without mentioning the tools and materials that are required for using a multilayer PCB. These are: *Powerful drill *Copper etcher *Laminating press *Copper plating cell *And most importantly - a well-ventilated areaThe reasons behind the development of the multilayer PCB are numerous, although some may think the technology was unnecessary while standard PCBs were doing fine. As discussed earlier, a multilayer PCB has a more flexible structure and can considerably reduce the size of the device. This is not the only reason. The cost of production using conventional PCBs was very high and costs only increased with new developments. By contrast, a multilayer PCB, in addition to providing revolutionary on-board components, more often than not needs only reprogramming. Moreover, mass production has become easier due to prefabricated multilayered PCBs. Instant installation or assembly of multilayer PCBs means electronic companies have definitely experienced a rise in their production rates.In case you are wondering about the longevity or quality of these circuit boards, they are very well packaged and can be left as they are for future use. Once each board is completed, it is thoroughly tested to make sure that it functions properly. In cases of failure, the repair process is easy and can be achieved by replacing the board itself instead of resorting to component-level troubleshooting.

Review of Callcentraic features

We have heard of many different pc to phone call companies that even offer free pc to phone international calls. We asked ourselves a question - how many people actually use these types of telephone services? Who would want to use their computer to make calls and receive calls? And it actually turned out that a lot of people would rather use their pc to make and receive calls than use a regular phone line. We have taken a look at the company called Callcentric. This company seems to be relatively new on the market but has a lot of different calling features that might make it more popular than other companies.Looking into the different features offered by this provider it seems that one feature actually sticks out more than the rest. Many of you have heard of three (3) way calling but what about four (4) way calling. This is something completely different and yet it is the same. You activate the feature the same way you would for three way calling but you are allowed to get a total of four different numbers or rather people on the line at the same time. This would be a great feature for a home office especially when it comes to conference calls. A lot of people have to get three or four people on the line at the same time and end of having to get their telephone company to provide a number to call so that the conference call can be made like that. And this feature is part of the plan so there are no extra charges. This is awesome!What about those annoying calls where people whether they are friends, family members or those most creative (just joking) telemarketers who have their telephone numbers blocked. On landline telephones you use the caller ID to know whether or not to answer the telephone and have to either wait for the answering machine or voice mail to pick up. Well it seems Callcentric has taken it one step further and come out with anonymous call rejection. When you see those unknown callers coming through your pc you have the choice on what to do with them; either send them directly to your voice mail or you can send them to a prerecorded message that advises them that you do not accept calls from unknown callers and they have to call back with the number unblocked. It seems Callcentric gets better with their features.Everyone has heard the saying BYOB but have you ever heard of BYOD. BYOD - Bring Your Own Device, what exactly is it? Well, with Callcentric you can use any type of phone whether it is the soft-phone or a regular telephone adapter, and as long as it supports SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) you can use it. With some devices you even can connect your pc to phone adapter and it will act as a broadband router. You can verify what devices have been tested by going to the support area of Callcentric.The last two features that seem to be useful when it comes to Callcentric is the call forwarding feature and the call return. The call forwarding allows certain features to be used and where all incoming calls can be forwarded to another number. Call return lets you call back the last person who called even if you didnt actually speak to that person.It seems that using Callcentric and its PC to phone call which offers "free pc to phone international call" is one of the best PC telephone companies out there. It has tons of different great features which make the company one of the best.

Email Etiquette Whats The Missing Link ?

Copyright 2006 The National Learning InstituteI looked up the web on email ettiquete and found many sites, yet only one of the 10 sites on the first page of Google, dealt with the real issue around email etiquette. However, I did find that theres even a new word for it now Netiquette. One site had 32 rules (of course with links to other pages for a fuller description) for "email etiquette" and yet they still missed the main point!What is the REAL issue on email etiquette? Well, before I answer that, read the following statement:I did not say she stole the moneyNow read it aloud to yourself (doesnt matter if anyone else is around, they wont know what youre doing).The key question! What is the meaning of this statement? What did you interpret from this written statement?Did you think that: I did not say she.., or that I did NOT say she .., or that I did not SAY she , or that I did not say that SHE stole , or that I did not say that she STOLE the money, or that I did not say she stole the MONEY.Starting to get the picture? You see, whenever we put words on paper (or in this case in emails) they can be interpreted in many different ways and often are! In fact the legal profession (with apologies to anyone of a legal nature reading this) have built an entire industry on the interpretation of the written words. Signed any contracts lately? Notice that they almost never have punctuations and even when they do, they can still be interpreted by two independent people, quite differently.By now you may have guessed what the golden rule of email etiquette should be:If the message has any emotional intent or is likely to have an impact on the receivers emotions, look for another way other than email to send it.Generally, this will mean face to face, or failing that over the phone or by video hook up, video cam etc.Emails should only be for fact, logic and reason. I have seen so many innocent (on the surface) emails start a war of words between consenting adults that if it wasnt so serious, would almost be laughable. In fact, I have seen a situation where two colleagues who once had a very good relationship, eventually deteriorate to the point of legal action over each others interpretation of a simple email message.Emails are unlike any other written word they are not books, newspapers or such where a great deal of thought has gone into the written word (and which is often accompanied by a visual image). Nor are they read that way, but keep in mind, that they can be re-read by the receiver many times over!Often they are written quickly and sometimes without review, yet they have replaced much of the face to face communication and phone communication that once made up so much of our interpersonal relationships. For example, how often do you see people sending emails to one another when they are in the office next door to one another or at the next desk or cubicle, rather than speaking with the person directly?But emails also lack all of the nonverbal communication that is going on all the time as we talk face to face with one another and which helps us understand each other. Numerous studies have revealed that in face to face communication, in terms of interpreting the message that is being sent by one person to another: 55-60% is through the non verbal signals that are being picked up 35-40% is through the tone of voice being used 7-10% is via the actual words that are spokenAnother recent survey disclosed that up to 37% of a first impression is based upon the speaker's tone of voice. On the telephone, that number rises to 80% or higher.So, if we have a message that is meant to be motivational, confrontational or in any way intended to impact the behaviour or feeling of the receiver, where does that leave us with emails as our means of communication if we can assume that only 7-10% of our real message is getting through? As one writer put it This makes email a unique medium. The lack of nonverbal clues makes it easy to misinterpret something, but we're not careful enough to avoid these misinterpretations because email feels so instant, easy and accessible, just like talking.As I said earlier, if you want to truly influence someones thinking or impact their behaviour, my suggestion is to see the person face to face, or as a fallback by some means of voice/video connection.Well that maybe ok when we KNOW that we want to impact the other persons feelings. But how do we avoid unintentionally impacting their feelings? (By the way, using any amount of smilies or similar at the bottom of your email, or as is creeping into emails at the moment, at the end of sentences, will have no positive affect in fact they may even work against you).Other than being as courteous as possible and re-reading the message carefully before sending it, the main word to avoid in your message is You particularly used in the past tense. When used in the past tense, often You infers blame for something that the receiver has or has not done. Perhaps we do not intend it to be inferred this way, but thats what happens. Moving away from emails for a moment. think about the last time you had a really heated argument with someone. Often what triggers such arguments is one person inferring blame by using You too often. You never do that for me, or You always miss my appointments. Pretty soon the other person joins in with their own Yous and what started out as a genuine and positive conversation, deteriorates into an argument. My bet is that when you really think about your last argument you had, the word that was used more than any other, was You and it was used in the past tense!Those of you who have done any assertiveness training will know that replacing You with I can be very powerful and without offending the other person. As a simple and quick exercise, Ill leave you with the task of rewriting the two You statements I used earlier - You never do that for me, and You always miss my appointments as I statements. This technique takes a little practise, but can improve the effectiveness of your email communications dramatically.So, I would suggest that we can have as much etiquette around things like salutations, ccs etc, and we can add as many smilies as possible, but unless the real meaning of the email is going to be received in the same way it was intended, then think again before sending it.Id like to get some feedback on email etiquette, so please email me via www.nationallearninginstitute.com

Summary

Electronic test equipment, commonly called testgear, is equipment that is used to create stimulating signals and capture the responses from electronic devices under test. These devices are knowns as DUTS, Devices Under Test. Given this controls it is possible to prove the proper operation of a device through these tests, and deem them as being needed of repair or not.